Gede Primahadi Wijaya Rajeg
  • Fakultas Ilmu Budaya


The important thing is to not stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing (Albert Einstein)

If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants (Isaac Newton, 1675)

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I ---

I took the one less travelled by,

And that has made all the difference (from The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost, 1916)

Language Nerd xkcd

topic: language nerd; source: xkcd


I am interested in how figurative, metaphoric languages reveal the way we conceptualise our experiences with the world, such as TIME and EMOTIONS (My new project in 2021 is on a book chapter about ANGER construal in Indonesian for a volume on the conceptualisations and cultural model of ANGER across languages). To this end, I work within a framework known as Cognitive Linguistics, subsuming the Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Frame Semantics approach to metaphor (MetaNet). My other interest is investigating aspects of Indonesian linguistics from the usage-based, constructionist perspective. Methodologically, I integrate computational technique and quantitative corpus linguistics in studying language on the basis of large databases of digitalised texts (the so-called "language corpora"). I use R programming language as the main research tool for all things data science in linguistics

All these research interests, in one way or another, have manifested in my Bachelor's, Master's, and PhD theses. One of the topics discussed in my PhD is about how near-synonyms of an emotion concept, in this case HAPPINESS in Indonesian, exhibit distinct statistical preferences to be described by certain metaphors; this suggests nuances associated with the synonyms (the data and codes for my PhD thesis are published as an R package here). The topic addresses a theoretical assumption in the cognitive approach to emotion semantics (cf. Kövecses 1990), namely that emotions, including those near-synonyms, are associated with specific metaphors that can distinguish them from one another. The Indonesian paper discussing a part of such analyses can be downloaded here (check out also my 2017 invited interview [in Indonesian] for SBS Radio Australia about this topic).

topic: happiness; source: 9gag

Recently, I begin exploring other empirical methods, such as experiments and co-speech gestures, as a way to find convergence/divergence between different types of evidence (i.e. corpus-linguistic and non-linguistic/behavioural evidence). My preliminary research along these lines include (i) investigating co-speech gestures accompanying temporal language (with Poppy Siahaan and Alice Gaby); (ii) investigating usage patterns of Indonesian INGESTION predicates based on the corpus data and sentence-production task (with I Made Rajeg and John Newman); and (iii) investigating the interaction of grammatical voice of words and their metaphoric meanings in Indonesian (with I Made Rajeg and I Wayan Arka), using quantitative corpus linguistic and sentence-production experiment (see also this page for the list of my current research). Moreover, please visit my Figshare profiles (Personal Figshare and for further details on my research outputs (all #OpenAccess).


Beyond research

Since June 2019, I am one of the Figshare ambassadors in/from Indonesia. I strive to foster open-science mindset and practice, especially for linguist(ic)s in Indonesia (cf. my one-page popular article [with Megan Hardeman] about my story and some of the impact of doing open science) (see the infographic on "The Rise of Open Access").


topic:; source: xkcd

In relation to my interest in open-science, I have been following the updates on how assessment towards researchers and their research outputs should be improved by not solely relying on (i) skewed metrics, such as the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) and/or H-index, and (ii) the venue in which research output is published (every academics nowadays should have read the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (SF DORA) and the Leiden Manifesto for more details).

I am also a certified instructor (under the name "Gede Rajeg") to teach The Carpentries lessons, especially the R programming language. I received my Carpentries certification in 2018 when I was a member of the instructor team at Monash Data Fluency for Research (2018 - 2019), where I helped co-teach basic coding skills (esp. R) for Monash University researchers and beyond.

Since April 2020, I run a YouTube channel for Indonesian and English content on linguistics-related topics and digital research tools.


Publication in the LFG 2020 Proceedings

My co-authored paper (with I Made Rajeg and I Wayan Arka) has just been published in the Proceedings of the LFG'20 Conference. Read the abstract and/or download the full paper

Rajeg, Gede Primahadi W., Rajeg, I Made, & Arka, I Wayan. 2020. Corpus-based approach meets LFG: the puzzling case of voice alternations of kena-verbs in Indonesian. In Butt, Miriam, & Toivonen, Ida (Eds.), Proceedings of the LFG’20 Conference, On-Line, 307–327. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

The paper is part of a research project on the interaction of grammatical voice and metaphoric meanings of verbs.

Presentation at Seminar Nasional Bahasa Ibu (SNBI) 2021

I co-presented (with I Made Rajeg, I Gede Semara Dharma Putra, & Putu Dea Indah Kartini) some findings from an on-going research on the constructional equivalence of English ROB and STEAL in Indonesian. Watch the recording (in Indonesian) here.

Doing Language Sciences in the Digital Age

I was invited to deliver a guest lecture (13 February 2021; flyer below) under the theme Doing Language Sciences in the Digital Age. The lecture was targeted at the fourth- and six-semester undergraduate students at the English Study Program, Faculty of Foreign Languages, at Mahasaraswati University, Denpasar, Bali. The first part of the lecture provided a brief overview of linguistics and its sub-areas. The second part of the lecture discussed how students' linguistic research project can take advantages of the technological advances characterising the field of corpus linguistics, particularly the availability of large collection of digitalised texts (i.e. language corpora) and the retrieved quantitative information from analysing large dataset from corpora; this was illustrated with a number of simple case studies around the word's usages on the basis of data from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the Coronavirus Corpus. You can download the slides here and watch the recording here.


Presentation in the UCREL Corpus Research Seminar series

I was invited to present in the UCREL Corpus Research Seminar series at Lancaster University, UK (26 November 2020, 20:00 WITA). I talked about a collaborative project with Dr. I Made Rajeg and Prof. I Wayan Arka on the interaction of voice alternation and (non-)metaphoric meanings of verbs. Download the slides here and watch the recording here.

Online Linguistics Classes on Cognitive Linguistics

I was invited to give an online guest lecture at the Doctoral Linguistics Program of the Universitas Sumatera Utara, North Sumatera Indonesia (26 October 2020, 15:00 WITA) (flyer). I presented an overview of Cognitive Linguistics and a case study within the field of conceptual metaphors and emotions. Watch the recording below and download the slides here.

Online Linguistics Classes of the Linguistic Society of Indonesia

I co-presented with Karlina Denistia and Prihantoro in delivering an online lecture as part of the Online Linguistics Class series by the Linguistic Society of Indonesia (17 October 2020, 15:00 WITA). Our class was an introduction to corpus linguistics as the combination of qualitative and quantitative analytical approaches. Watch the recording of the lecture below and download the slides here

Inaugural Corpus Linguistics course at Udayana University

I develop a new course on Corpus Linguistics in the Odd Semester 2020 for the Doctoral Linguistics Program at the Faculty of Humanities, Udayana University (I teamed up with Prof. I Wayan Arka in this course). There are several video tutorials in Indonesian that I prepared for this class, including tutorial on AntConc (Anthony 2019), WebCorp, Indonesian Leipzig Corpora, Atom text editor, and some quantitative data analysis with MS Excel and R. This course also features a guest lecture by Prof. Dr. Martin Hilpert (University of Neuchâtel) (24 November 2020 at 3pm Indonesian Central Time [WITA]) as part of the Sharing Session on #Linguistics series that I convene.

BIT TALK at BIT SCHOOL - "Coding untuk Anak Sastra? Perlu Banget!"

In this talk (in Indonesian), I discuss the importance and advantage of learning coding skills for data science, particularly in using R programming language, for students and researchers in the Humanities, especially in language sciences (linguistics). Download the slides here or watch the recording.

Batch 2 for "Data Analytics in Action - Practical data analysis and visualisation with R"

This R class goes regular in BIT-SCHOOL! (see the introductory video below). It will run for four days during the week.

Modul pelatihan - Introduction to R for Windows and macOS

For this module (Anggraini, Sukmawati, & Rajeg 2020), I was invited to contribute to the chapters on installing R and RStudio for macOS. The module is part of the Introductory workshop on R organised by Komunitas R Borneo and the Department of Statistics, Lambung Mangkurat University, Kalimantan. The workshop was also a collaboration with R-Ladies Jakarta (@RLadiesJakarta).

Batch 1 for "Data Analytics in Action - Practical data analysis and visualisation with R"

I have been invited for the second time (after last year) to teach an 8-day online workshop on Practical data analysis and visualisation with R at BIT-SCHOOL, a part of BIT-HOUSE. The class started on 29 June 2020.

Bagaimana membuat luaran riset lebih terbuka? ('How to share research outputs more openly?')

The video below was a live, virtual chat-over-coffee between Indonesian Figshare ambassadors regarding open science in a nutshell. We chatted about the idea that 21st-century research outputs are varied, ranging from (analysis) codes, dataset, presentation slides, figures, map, and pre-print, among many others; they are all valuable in their own way (e.g., sharing analysis codes and data allows others to verify, replicate, and expand what a given study has addressed--this is how sciences progress). Thus, present-day research output is not simply what many academics traditionally believe to be, namely research article, even though it is still one core component of the research process. Check out San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (SF DORA) and the Leiden Manifesto (here and here) regarding the nature of research outputs in modern science, and how status-quo in research assessment needs to adapt to this development.

The 25th International Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) Conference

Below is our pre-recorded talk for the LFG20 (download the full paper in Rajeg, Rajeg, & Arka 2020). We discussed the meaning-preserving hypothesis of voice alternation (i.e. active and passive) in Indonesian from an LFG perspective. The hypothesis predicts that any meanings expressed by a transitive verb are available for both active and passive voice forms of the verb; the difference between these voice constructions lie in the different linking of grammatical relations (e.g. SUBJECT and OBJECT) and semantic roles (e.g. AGENT, THEME, PATIENT) of the verb. On the basis of quantitative corpus linguistic analysis, we argue that voice alternation between active and passive of a given verb needs to be relativised to (i) a certain sense/meaning of a verb and (ii) (statistical) usage constraints of the verbs' senses/meanings in certain voice forms. We also demonstrate the viability of the LFG framework and related analytical issues in capturing such empirical facts. The upshot of our study is that passive form of a given verb expressing a particular sense/meaning is not always derived from, and expresses the same meaning as, its presumed active counterpart; a given voice form can exhibit (statistical) usage preferences to express a predominant sense/meaning that may be absent from, or less likely to be expressed in, the other voice form.

Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Research Talk (FReTalk) 2

Below is the recording of my talk (in Indonesian) at the FReTalk 2. The presentation draws on my co-authored paper with Karlina Denistia and Simon Musgrave (Rajeg, Denistia, & Musgrave 2019) published open access in NUSA Vol. 67 (see also the open-access data and code [as an R Notebook]). We discussed the Vector Space Model (Turney & Pantel 2010) and its application to investigate semantic (dis)similarity and cluster of Indonesian denominal verbs with meN-, meN-/-kan, and meN-/-i affixes.

Webinar on Finding Publications and Managing References

Joey Lovestrand (SOAS University of London) and I co-presented in a webinar (20 May 2020; recording below) about finding publications and managing references. The webinar was organised by Pusat Kajian Bahasa dan Budaya (PKBB) Universitas Katolik Atma Jaya, Jakarta. See also my tutorial on Zotero.

Webex and OASE (Moodle) workshop at the Faculty of Humanities, Udayana University

I made several tutorials for Webex Conference and OASE (Universitas Udayana's moodle site) during the #workfromhome period in the Covid-19 pandemic. Here is one of the video tutorials on OASE grade book. Full playlist can be accessed here and here.