Gede Primahadi Wijaya Rajeg
  • Fakultas Ilmu Budaya


The important thing is to not stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing (Albert Einstein)

If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants (Isaac Newton, 1675)

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I ---

I took the one less travelled by,

And that has made all the difference (from The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost, 1916)

Language Nerd xkcd

topic: language nerd; source: xkcd


I am mainly interested in how figurative, metaphoric languages reveal the way we conceptualise our experiences with the world, such as with the concepts of TIME and EMOTION. My other interests are in lexical-semantic, morphological, and syntactic phenomena in Indonesian. Theoretically, my work is couched within a broader framework of Cognitive Linguistics, especially the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, Frame Semantics approach to metaphor (MetaNet), and the usage-based, constructionist approach. Methodologically, I integrate computational technique and quantitative corpus linguistics in studying languages on the basis of databases of digitalised texts (the so-called "language corpora"). I use the R programming language as the main research tool for all things data science in linguistics (visit the list of my current research). From 2023, I work as a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics, University of Oxford for the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Grant on developing lexical resources for Enggano.

The aforementioned research interests and theoretical orientations, in one way or another, have been the theme(s) of my Bachelor's, Master's, and PhD theses. One of the topics discussed in my PhD thesis is how near-synonyms of an emotion concept, in this case, HAPPINESS in Indonesian, exhibit distinct statistical preferences to be described by certain metaphors; this suggests nuances associated with the synonyms. The topic addresses a theoretical assumption in the cognitive-linguistic approach to emotion semantics (cf. Kövecses 1990), namely that emotions, including those near-synonyms, are associated with specific metaphors that can distinguish the synonyms from one another. The Indonesian paper discussing a part of such analyses can be downloaded here. Also, check out (i) my 2017 invited interview (in Indonesian) for SBS Radio Australia about this topic and (ii) my paper on happiness metaphors in Classical Malay and Indonesian (download the author's accepted full-text). The data and codes for my PhD thesis are published here as an R package called happyr. In April 2020, my PhD thesis was awarded "High Commendation" for the 2019 Faculty of Arts Outstanding PhD Thesis, by the Faculty of Arts, Monash University, Australia.

topic: happiness; source: 9gag

I have also begun exploring other empirical methods, such as experiments and co-speech gestures, as a way to find convergence/divergence between different types of evidence (i.e. linguistic and non-linguistic/behavioural evidence). My preliminary research along these lines includes (i) investigating co-speech gestures accompanying temporal language (with Poppy Siahaan and Alice Gaby; the published paper is here) and negation (with Poppy Siahaan; full paper); (ii) investigating usage patterns of Indonesian INGESTION predicates based on the corpus data and sentence-production task (with I Made Rajeg and John Newman); and (iii) investigating the interaction of grammatical voice of words and their metaphoric meanings in Indonesian (with I Made Rajeg and I Wayan Arka), combining the quantitative corpus-linguistic and sentence-production experiment (the open-access, published papers are here and here). See also this page for the list of my current research and please visit my Figshare profiles (Personal Figshare and for further details on my research outputs (all #OpenAccess). Also, follow me on Mastodon! Since April 2024, I have established and led a research group called CompLexico.


Beyond research

Since June 2019, I have been one of the Figshare ambassadors in/from Indonesia. I strive to foster an open science mindset and practice, especially for Indonesian linguists and linguistics; see my one-page popular article (with Megan Hardeman) about my story and some of the impacts of doing open science.


topic:; source: xkcd

I have also been following the updates on how the assessment of researchers and their research outputs should be improved by not solely relying on (i) skewed metrics, such as the Journal Impact Factor (JIF) and/or H-index, and (ii) the venue in which research output is published (see also the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment [SF DORA] and the Leiden Manifesto for more details).

I am also a certified instructor (under the name "Gede Rajeg") to teach The Carpentries lessons, especially the R programming language. I received my Carpentries certification in 2018 when I was a member of the instructor team at the Monash Data Fluency for Research (2018 - 2019), where I helped co-teach basic coding skills (esp. R) for Monash University researchers and beyond.

Since April 2020, I have set up a YouTube channel containing linguistics-related topics and digital research tools.


Presentation on the corpus-based study of verbal and nominal affixation in Indonesian

Karlina Denistia and I co-presented our co-authored book chapters as part of the corpus-based, contemporary Indonesian grammar project (flyer) by the national language agency of Indonesia. Access the recorded live-streaming (in Indonesian) on YouTube here (for Denistia & Rajeg's 2023 paper on nominal affixation in Indonesian) and here (for Rajeg & Denistia's 2023 paper on verbal affixation in Indonesian).

A new paper published in early 2023!

My co-authored paper on the history of happiness metaphors in Classical Malay and Indonesian has been published in Review of Cognitive Linguistics since Valentine's Day 2023 💝! Download the authors' accepted manuscript here; request the publisher version via ResearchGate; read the lay-person summary at Kudos; download the underlying data and R codes for the Classical Malay and the Indonesian data.

Philofest ID 2022

I have been invited to a dialogue session at the Philofest ID 2022 (11 December 2022) to discuss "nature vs. nurture" in light of empirical evidence from cognitive linguistics.

Workshop on "Austronesian argument alternations in discourse"

I have been invited to co-present (with I Wayan Arka) at the workshop on Austronesian argument alternations in discourse (28-29 November 2022) at the Australian National University (ANU), Canberra, ACT. The workshop is part of the project titled Where does grammar come from? The cognitive basis of transitivity and grammatical relation.

Guest lecture on corpus-based approach to syntax

I have been invited to deliver a guest lecture on the topic titled Analisis Korpus dalam Kajian Sintaksis (Corpus-based Analysis of Syntax) at the Arabic Department of the IAIN Syekh Nurjati, Cirebon (10 May 2022) (flyer, slides, and live-streaming recording). 

Basic text manipulation with stringr

I have been invited to talk about basic text manipulation with the stringr R package at the R-Ladies Jakarta 15th meetup on 2 April 2022 (recording). The workshop materials (in Indonesian) are published on a GitHub page (source codes).

Workshop on Analysing Corpus-based Concordance Data

I will be co-delivering a two-session workshop (with Karlina Denistia, Ph.D. and Prihantoro, Ph.D.) on the basics of analysing corpus-based concordance data. The workshop is organised by the Linguistic Society of Indonesia (Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia [MLI]) on the occasion of the 46th anniversary of MLI. Registration (via this link) is closed on the 7th of November 2021. It is free for the members of MLI.

Keynote talk at the Master's Program in Linguistics, Universitas Sebelas Maret

I was invited as one of the keynote speakers at the Master Class webinar (YouTube recording) organised by the Linguistics Master's Program at the Universitas Sebelas Maret (UNS), Central Java, on the 25th of August, 2021. I presented the basic concepts and analytical tools in corpus linguistics, and their application in the study of the form-meaning relationship in the domain of Indonesian voice-morphological constructions (based on this research project). Download the slides here.

Plenary talk at KOLITA 19

I co-presented a plenary talk with Karlina Denistia, Ph.D. at the KOLITA 19 (15 July 2021). The talk is based on our project on the Indonesian causative rival affixes PER- and -KAN. We presented a quantitative study on the distributional constraints of the adjectival bases with PER- and -KAN using Distinctive Collexeme Analysis.

R talk at the Universiti Sains Malaysia

A colleague at the Epidemiological Modelling Group, Universiti Sains Malaysia, invited me to share my story about using R for (my) linguistic research. You can find the recording below.

Corpus Linguistics workshop

With Karlina Denistia and Prihantoro, I delivered a four-day workshop on Corpus Linguistics at Universitas Atma Jaya Yogyakarta (UAJY) from 19 - 21 April 2021 + 1 May 2021. The workshop was organised by Kantor Pelatihan Bahasa dan Budaya UAJY.

Publication in the LFG 2020 Proceedings

My co-authored paper (with I Made Rajeg and I Wayan Arka) has just been published in the Proceedings of the LFG'20 Conference. Read the abstract and/or download the full paper

Rajeg, Gede Primahadi W., Rajeg, I Made, & Arka, I Wayan. 2020. Corpus-based approach meets LFG: the puzzling case of voice alternations of kena-verbs in Indonesian. In Butt, Miriam, & Toivonen, Ida (Eds.), Proceedings of the LFG’20 Conference, On-Line, 307–327. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

The paper is part of a research project on the interaction of grammatical voice and metaphoric meanings of verbs.

Presentation at Seminar Nasional Bahasa Ibu (SNBI) 2021

I co-presented (with I Made Rajeg, I Gede Semara Dharma Putra, & Putu Dea Indah Kartini) some findings from an ongoing research on the constructional equivalence of English ROB and STEAL in Indonesian. Watch the recording (in Indonesian) here.

Doing Language Sciences in the Digital Age

I was invited to deliver a guest lecture (13 February 2021; flyer below) under the theme Doing Language Sciences in the Digital Age. The lecture was targeted at the fourth- and six-semester undergraduate students in the English Study Program, Faculty of Foreign Languages, at Mahasaraswati University, Denpasar, Bali. The first part of the lecture provided a brief overview of linguistics and its sub-areas. The second part of the lecture discussed how students' linguistic research projects can take advantage of the technological advances characterising the field of corpus linguistics, particularly the availability of a large collection of digitalised texts (i.e. language corpora) and the retrieved quantitative information from analysing large dataset from corpora; this was illustrated with a number of simple case studies around the word's usages on the basis of data from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) and the Coronavirus Corpus. You can download the slides here and watch the recording here.


Presentation in the UCREL Corpus Research Seminar series

I was invited to present in the UCREL Corpus Research Seminar series at Lancaster University, UK (26 November 2020, 20:00 WITA). I talked about a collaborative project with Dr I Made Rajeg and Prof. I Wayan Arka on the interaction of voice alternation and (non-)metaphoric meanings of verbs. Download the slides here and watch the recording here. NB: the paper based on this presentation has been published open access in Linguistics Vanguard (I M. Rajeg, G. P. W. Rajeg, & I W. Arka, 2022) (see the data and R codes repository of the paper here or here).

Online Linguistics Classes on Cognitive Linguistics

I was invited to give an online guest lecture at the Doctoral Linguistics Program of the Universitas Sumatera Utara, North Sumatera Indonesia (26 October 2020, 15:00 WITA) (flyer). I presented an overview of Cognitive Linguistics and a case study within the field of conceptual metaphors and emotions. Watch the recording here and download the slides here.

Online Linguistics Classes of the Linguistic Society of Indonesia

I co-presented with Karlina Denistia and Prihantoro in delivering an online lecture as part of the Online Linguistics Class series by the Linguistic Society of Indonesia (17 October 2020, 15:00 WITA). Our class was an introduction to corpus linguistics as the combination of qualitative and quantitative analytical approaches. Watch the recording of the lecture here and download the slides here.

Inaugural Corpus Linguistics course at Udayana University

I develop a new course on Corpus Linguistics in the Odd Semester 2020 for the Doctoral Linguistics Program at the Faculty of Humanities, Udayana University (I teamed up with Prof. I Wayan Arka in this course). There are several video tutorials in Indonesian that I prepared for this class, including tutorials on AntConc (Anthony 2019), WebCorp, Indonesian Leipzig Corpora, Atom text editor, and some quantitative data analysis with MS Excel and R. This course also features a guest lecture by Prof. Dr Martin Hilpert (University of Neuchâtel) (24 November 2020 at 3 pm Indonesian Central Time [WITA]) as part of the Sharing Session on #Linguistics series that I convene.

BIT TALK at BIT SCHOOL - "Coding untuk Anak Sastra? Perlu Banget!"

In this talk (in Indonesian), I discuss the importance and advantage of learning coding skills for data science, particularly in using R programming language, for students and researchers in the Humanities, especially in language sciences (linguistics). Download the slides here or watch the recording.

Batch 2 for "Data Analytics in Action - Practical data analysis and visualisation with R"

This R class goes regular in BIT-SCHOOL! (see the introductory video here). It will run for four days during the week.

Modul pelatihan - Introduction to R for Windows and macOS

For this module (Anggraini, Sukmawati, & Rajeg 2020), I was invited to contribute to the chapters on installing R and RStudio for macOS. The module is part of the Introductory workshop on R organised by Komunitas R Borneo and the Department of Statistics, Lambung Mangkurat University, Kalimantan. The workshop was also a collaboration with R-Ladies Jakarta (@RLadiesJakarta).

Batch 1 for "Data Analytics in Action - Practical data analysis and visualisation with R"

I have been invited for the second time (after last year) to teach an 8-day online workshop on Practical data analysis and visualisation with R at BIT-SCHOOL, a part of BIT-HOUSE. The class started on 29 June 2020.

Bagaimana membuat luaran riset lebih terbuka? ('How to share research outputs more openly?')

This is a virtual chat-over-coffee between Indonesian Figshare ambassadors regarding open science in a nutshell. We chatted about the idea that 21st-century research outputs are varied, ranging from (analysis) codes, datasets, presentation slides, figures, maps, and pre-print, among many others; they are all valuable in their own way (e.g., sharing analysis codes and data allows others to verify, replicate, and expand what a given study has addressed--this is how sciences progress). Thus, present-day research output is not simply what many academics traditionally believe to be, namely research articles, even though it is still one core component of the research process. Check out San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (SF DORA) and the Leiden Manifesto (here and here) regarding the nature of research outputs in modern science, and how status-quo of research assessment needs to adapt to this development.

The 25th International Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) Conference

Watch our pre-recorded talk for the LFG20 and download the full paper in Rajeg, Rajeg, & Arka 2020. We discussed the meaning-preserving hypothesis of voice alternation (i.e. active and passive) in Indonesian from an LFG perspective.

Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Research Talk (FReTalk) 2

Download the slides of this talk from here, including the link to the recorded talk.